What is studying Russian?
Language is extremely closely connected with human activity: any thought, any action is first formed in the head (in the form of internal speech), and then perceived as a signal. For communication and existence, a person simply needs a language, and therefore it is necessary to know that he is studying Russian.
The structure of any language is multifaceted and heterogeneous; it includes a multitude of layers and levels, each of which has its own unit of existence and a certain branch that studies this level.
Russian language structure
The most minimal unit of a language is the phoneme (sound). Phonetics and phonology are studying the phonetic level. By itself, the phoneme has no grammatical or lexical meaning, but is part of the words. The graphic image of the phoneme is a letter.
The minimum significant unit is a morpheme - a part of a word that stands out during morphological analysis - root, prefix, suffix, ending, and so on.Morphology deals with the study of morphemes and forms of words. What is studying Russian at this level? Here you can already track some grammatical meanings, for example, the suffix -l- indicates a past tense verb (say-l, buy-l-a, grew-l-o).
The next level is a lexical language of which is a lexeme (word). All our speech consists of words; they have fixed concepts and meanings that help people understand each other. The study of words engaged in lexicology.
And the last, the largest level of the language system - syntactic. The minimum language unit is a phrase. In addition to the phrase syntax also examines sentences and texts, their types, relationships and types.
What else is studying Russian?
As the Russian nation developed, the language also developed, new subsystems appeared, the study became more and more profound, and now the Russian language as a science is a rather extensive system of disciplines, which include:
- word-formation, which is engaged in the study of how words appear, how they are formed;
- lexicography, which studies the dictionaries of Russian words, the principles of their compilation and types;
- neology that studies new words and expressions;
- phraseology, studying Russian proverbs and sayings, as well as "winged words" - stable expressions that are included in the active composition of the language;
- punctuation, which studies punctuation marks, intonation pauses and principles of their statement in speech;
- spelling is studying the rules of writing words;
- spelling studies the correct pronunciation of words;
- the style studies the emotional coloration of words and phrases, as well as functional genres of texts.
Modern Russian language does not stand still, it develops with society, and therefore new branches of linguistics all appear and appear, and the prospects for studying the language are unlimited, just as there are no limits to human consciousness.