What are hormones?

We often hear such a phrase as "raging hormones." Especially often this phrase is used in relation to adolescents and pregnant women. However, do you know what hormones are and how they �rage�? Understanding the mechanism of hormones is extremely important, since hormones affect not only the behavioral reactions of a person, but also directly on his health. In this article we will tell you what hormones are, what classes of hormones exist, and how they act on our body.


Hormones - biologically active chemicals that are produced by cells of some parts of the body, affect the cells of other parts of the body and perform a signal function. This is the most common formulation that is applicable absolutely to all hormones studied so far. Most hormones are actively involved in metabolism, and also act as regulators of various processes occurring in organs and body systems.


There are two generally accepted classifications of hormones. The first is the anatomical classification, according to which hormones at the place of formation are divided into the following groups:

  • hypothalamic hormones (somatostatin, somatoliberin, melanoliberin, melanostatin);
  • pituitary hormones (thyrotropin, vasopressin, oxytocin, somatotropin, prolactin, gonadotropins);
  • parathyroid hormones (parathyroid hormones);
  • pancreatic hormones (insulin, glucagon).

The second classification divides them according to the chemical structure into the following groups:

  • fatty acid derivatives;
  • protein and peptide hormones;
  • steroid hormones;
  • amino acid derivatives.


Hormones are produced by various endocrine glands and perform various functions in the body. Here are some examples of the functions of the most significant hormones:

  • Thyrotropin releasing hormone (thyrotropin-releasing hormone) is produced by the hypothalamus and stimulates the production of thyrotropin.
  • Growth hormone (growth hormone) is produced by the anterior pituitary gland and accelerates the growth and development of organs and bones.
  • Oxytocin is produced by the posterior lobe of the pituitary gland. Causes uterine contraction during labor, contributes to breast lactation, improves muscle regeneration, is used to treat autism, etc.
  • Thyroxin, produced by the thyroid gland, helps regulate the body's metabolism.
  • Thyrocalcitonin is produced by the parathyroid glands. With a high content of tirocalcitonin in the body, the level of calcium decreases in human blood.
  • Insulin is produced by the pancreas and is involved in the metabolism of the body. Its main function is to lower the blood glucose level.

The effect of hormones on the body

Hormones directly or indirectly affect all spheres of human life at any age. Some can cause a lack of energy, others - mood swings, changing eating habits, contribute to the development of memory and concentration, and even cause convulsions, increased sweating, anxiety, tension and irritability. They can affect your digestive system, causing symptoms such as flatulence, irritable bowel syndrome and bloating. An imbalance of female sex hormones can lead to the formation of endometriosis, myomas, cause PMS, and such hormones actively influence the behavior and condition of the female body during menopause.

How hormones work can affect your weight fluctuations. Due to hormonal imbalances, many people gain weight, which in turn increases the risk of developing cardiovascular diseases, type 2 diabetes, Alzheimer's disease, breast cancer, increases cholesterol levels, blood pressure, etc.

Regulation of hormone levels

In order to balance the level of hormones, various medications are used:

  • insulin;
  • adrenalin;
  • steroids;
  • estrone;
  • glucagon.

These drugs are responsible for the production of various hormones, so taking them at will is strictly contraindicated. Any drug treatment has the right to appoint only a specialist.

However, if this is not about a violation of the hormone level, but only about a slight imbalance of hormones in the body, drug treatment is not necessary. Just start eating right:

  • eat foods high in protein, not fat;
  • make a clear meal schedule and stick to it daily (five meals per day with an interval of 2-3 hours in small portions);
  • drink large amounts of water (2-2.5 l);
  • three hours before bedtime stop eating.

What you eat and drink affects your future health. Proper nutrition can help you cope with stress, avoid feeling tired, feel a surge of energy, etc.

Symptoms of possible hormonal failure

In order not to miss the moment and diagnose hormonal disorders in time, it is necessary to carefully monitor your health. Symptoms of such violations can be a sharp change in weight, the appearance of unwanted hair, where they should not be, the appearance of stretch marks, blurred vision and itchy skin.