How are coins made?
A coin is a money-mark made of metal and serves as a legal means of circulation and payment. Most often, the coins are round, less often - oval. Earlier, coins were minted or cast from copper, silver or gold. Modern coins are made, as a rule, from alloys of aluminum, copper or nickel. The name "coin" occurred, as scientists believe, from the second name of the Roman goddess Juno, at whose temple in ancient Rome money was minted. Juno was called Mentor, which in Latin sounded like Juno Moneta.
Each coin is used to distinguish between the obverse (it is called the obverse) and the reverse side (it is called the reverse). The side edge of the coin, its edge, is called the edge. Science, comprehensively studying the history of money circulation and minting of coins, is numismatics.
After a little excursion into history, we will tell you how to make coins in a modern mint.
The process of making coins
- First, the designer develops a sketch of the coin on paper, after which it creates its three-dimensional model in an enlarged view. Then the model is covered with a thick layer of silicone-based rubber, which conveys the entire relief of the model in the smallest detail.When the rubber hardens, it is carefully removed and a kind of “negative” coins are obtained - the convex parts of the image become concave and vice versa the concave steels become convex. The resulting negative form is filled with epoxy and waited for it to harden, after which the epoxy copy is removed from the silicone mold.
- A special reduction machine transfers the image from the epoxy copy to a master-stamp made of steel. In the process of transferring the image is reduced, and the size of the obtained stamp already corresponds to the specified size of the future coin.
- On the basis of the main master stamp create working dies from high-strength steel. They are hardened, polished, and then chrome plated to give them additional strength and increase their service life.
- On special presses, round blanks of coins are cut and a herd is processed, putting on it the necessary inscriptions and notches.
- After that, the workpiece is heated, cooled, pickled and polished to a mirror shine. Now the billet is ready for loading into a coin press.
- Steel punches simultaneously minted both sides of the coin, after which new and shiny finished coins can only be counted and packaged.
This is where our story about how coins are made comes to an end.Finally, some information about the coins of Russia.
Modern Russian coins
- Now in the course of the 1997 coin, face value of one, five, ten and fifty kopecks, as well as one, five, ten and twenty-five rubles. Now a few words about what metal coins are made of. One- and five-kopek coins are minted from steel clad with cupronickel, ten and fifty kopecks are made of brass, coins of one and two rubles are made of a copper-nickel alloy, and ten rubles are made of steel with a brass finish.
- Modern Russian coins are minted on two mints - Moscow and St. Petersburg. On the coins put a sign of the mint, where they were minted. Sometimes there are coins on which there is no such sign due to technical irregularities in the minting process. Coins without the stigma of the mint are extremely rare and therefore very expensive. So, for example, for a five-kopeck coin of 2002, which has no stamp, collectors are willing to pay five thousand rubles, and a coin of 50 kopecks of 2001 with the stamp of the Moscow Mint will bring its lucky owner an incredible amount - as much as a hundred thousand rubles!