Citation Rules

In Russian, there are certain rules of quotation and its design, the use of which will help you correctly insert a quote into any text. Citing is an integral part of writing essays, term papers and dissertations, articles and texts. Quotes give the article completeness, conciseness and a certain status, as it increases the credibility of the author by quoting famous people. However, many are wondering how to draw quotes correctly, as well as where in the text and how to insert a quote.

Let's take a look at the basic rules for formatting quotes in Russian.

Rules of quotations in Russian

  1. The most important rule for a quote is as follows: the quote should reproduce the quoted text with 100% accuracy! Deviations from the text, insertion or deletion of any parts of the text are unacceptable.
  2. The same applies to punctuation marks - they must correspond to those set in the text. When the quoted text is not at hand (for example, when passing the exam), it is necessary to arrange the corresponding punctuation marks in accordance with the punctuation rules of the Russian language.
  3. Quotation should be appropriate, justified by the specific objectives of the author.
  4. When you miss some words from passages, you should put an ellipsis in place of this pass. In this case, we should not forget that the ellipsis should not distort the meaning of the phrase, since such a violation is a gross mistake of citing as such. If the first words are missing in the quotation, then it is necessary to put ellipsis after the quotes and begin the quotation with a small letter.
  5. The original meaning is the main criterion of quoting. When a quotation refers to one subject, and it is used in describing another, the meaning given by the author to the quotation is distorted.
  6. If the quotation is added to the text of the essay, then it is possible to use indirect speech, which will allow to convey the exact phrase of the quoted (for example, the hero of the book). For example: "I know only two real misfortunes in life: remorse of conscience and illness," says Prince Andrei Pierre. Prince Andrew tells Pierre that he knows in life "only two real misfortunes: remorse of conscience and illness."
  7. It is unacceptable to retell a poetic text in your own words.

How to highlight a quote graphically?

  1. The most basic way is quotes.
  2. Italics or smaller font size quotes compared to the main text.
  3. A separate place for quotes on the page (in the middle, side).

Making selections within a quote

Regardless of whether the selection belongs to the author of the quoted text or they are the initiative of the quoted, they are also subject to strict requirements.

If the selections belong to the author of the quoted text, then it is recommended to save them in the same form in which they are presented in the source. The author's selection in most cases is not specified.

If the selections belong to the cite, they are negotiated. The comment is enclosed in brackets.


We should also consider the epigraph - a quote that is placed at the beginning of the essay or a separate part to impart a certain image, meaning, spirit to the work or expression of the author’s thoughts. The witty saying used as an epigraph is called "motto."

The requirements for the designation of an epigraph are slightly different from the rules for formalizing quotes:

  • located on the right side of the sheet;
  • issued without quotes;
  • The surname and initials of the author are not enclosed in brackets;
  • No full stop after the last name.

For example:

Who wrong buttoned

first button

no longer buttoned properly.

(Johann Wolfgang von Goethe)

About copyright

The law of the Russian Federation does not prohibit quoting both in the original and in translation, without the consent of the author or paying remuneration, but requires the indication of the name of the author, the work from which the quote was taken, as well as the source of borrowing.

So, we have considered the most important rules for issuing quotes. To quickly memorize them, read more of the literature in which the quotes are given, then you will know exactly how to write quotes so that they complement your own text. Good luck!