Basic human needs
In the course of studying the needs of the individual, it is important to take into account that the basic human needs differ not only in content, but also in the level of dependence on society.
In science, the popular needs of the system A. Maslow. They were allocated groups of human needs, they are built in a certain hierarchy. The importance depends on the level of influence of society.
Taking into account the system of needs for Maslow, such needs are highlighted that play a serious role in the behavior of people:
the main ones;
For the lion’s share of individuals, the need for security plays an important role. It seriously affects the behavior, self-perception of a person. Initially, this means physical security of the person (criminal situation in the society, arbitrariness in the legal sphere, low quality of air, food and water, unpreparedness to meet with disasters, etc.), as well as insufficient social protection of the person in the field of education and health .
Need for communication and isolation
A truly serious role in the formation of the human psyche and the individual is played by the need for communication, as well as isolation.
The need to communicate with others is one of the basic needs of each person. Through the fulfillment of this requirement, a person learns the norms of society, the rules of behavior, values, and experiences life in a society. In addition, there is political, legal socialization. Through communication, the individual learns to know others, himself, increases his own social potential, learn to solve important tasks for life.
This need is one of the manifestations of the social essence of the individual. It works from the moment a person is born and lasts throughout life. It is performed in different forms: mother-to-child interaction, pedagogical communication, professional, play, etc.
In addition to communication, the need for isolation is of major importance. Its implementation will create various development options, socialization of the individual. She is usually satisfied:
thanks to the isolation in the reference group (company of friends, family, etc.). In psychology, this group includes societies where interests, norms, and other serious factors coincide with the rules of the individual.In such an environment, a person feels “like a fish in water”, feels protected, is able to manifest his own individuality;
thanks to solitude. A person's one-on-one stay acquires two main types: speculative and in the form of objective and practical activity. The first kind is manifested when the person wants to stay with herself to think about something. This isolation has a serious impact on the development of the individual, as well as human life, in the process of developing self-esteem and opinion. The second type is a variety of hobbies and hobbies.
Ethnic needs play a major role in the life of society and the individual. Their basis lies in three main needs:
extension of the genus;
These needs are also among representatives of the animal world, which ensures the existence of a particular species. In humans, these components in terms of means, form, content, and type of implementation have content and social and cultural color. But it is worth considering the following circumstances:
only the manifestation and action of the 3 data needs of the individual will ensure the existence and growth of society.The destruction of one need becomes the cause of the fall of the ethnos;
the energy potential of these needs varies. The energy of the 3rd need in the account exceeds 2.5 times the energy of the first. This means that when a person has little or no desire to extend the genus and conserve the species, the self-preservation instinct is not capable of providing normal energy for a high-quality life, normal behavior (among homeless people, the elderly).
The need for self-affirmation and labor
The list of basic needs also includes the need for self-affirmation, acceptance of achievements by other people, especially significant ones. The need for labor is of great importance, since it is a source for normal life in society. This need improves the other needs of the person, gives them meaning. In this case, the person acquires social significance.
The need for self-knowledge
It is impossible not to mention the serious contribution to the development of the individual, his successful life and activity, the need for self-knowledge and cognition. The desire to know life and the world is fulfilled through such ways:
with the help of science. Here the purpose of knowledge is truth.The main feature of such knowledge is the objectivity of information. The purpose of scientific knowledge is to establish the truth. The closer knowledge comes to truth, the more objectivity it acquires, it no longer depends on individual aspirations and desires. It becomes clear that such knowledge is pushing the horizons of personal capabilities, protecting it, helping and teaching to find adequate solutions;
using art. It consists in the desire for a figurative, direct, personal perception of the world. The purpose of this knowledge is the understanding of the truth of life, obtaining reliable knowledge. A distinctive feature is subjectivity. In all manifestations of art, a subjective view of the world and life is presented. The main problem of all types of art - a person, thoughts, feelings, emotions and actions. A lot of creative people take part in this field. For this reason, art becomes one of the resources for the knowledge of people;
using religion. Practical all the inhabitants of the planet live with a religious sensation and understanding of the world. And for this reason it is important to have an idea of the religious and scientific vision of the world;
with the help of their own experience (obtained in society or in the process of work). This refers to the understanding of others and himself.
To purely social personal needs are ideological. This requirement of the individual is manifested in the search for ideas, explanations of problems, and awareness of the causes of factors and phenomena. Such a need is realized through:
application of data of different types of sciences. As a result, man is able to add up the scientific understanding of the world;
the assimilation of the norms of religion. Under their influence, the person forms a religious vision of the world.
It is worth noting that people under the influence of these needs and in the course of their execution form a mosaic, multi-polar understanding of the world. It is dominated by scientific vision in a person with a secular education, and in individuals with a religious - religious understanding.
Need for justice
One of the serious necessities that work in our society is the need for justice. It is expressed in accordance with the personal consciousness of one's own duties and rights, in the relationship of the individual with society, in accordance with the social environment.In this area, a person is able to focus on:
protecting and increasing one’s own rights;
Significant performance of their duties with respect to others, as well as society as a whole;
harmony in the combination of duties and rights in solving problems in society and in work.
According to the predominance of a certain orientation and his own understanding of justice and injustice, the personality assesses the activity and behavior of others.
Aesthetic needs play a major role in personal activities. They include an understanding of harmony, beauty, proper perception of behavior. Also life according to the canons of beauty, which corresponds to a figurative and harmonious understanding.
The list of social human needs, which occupy the main place for the individual, are: the need for self-development, development, improvement of themselves and the world around them To a certain degree, all people strive to become smart, strong, successful, beautiful, etc.
The process of fulfilling such aspirations is seriously affected not only by factors from the outside, conditions and characteristics of life, but also personal values and norms.At the same time, self-assessment activity is of key importance, which gives the person a chance to identify and track the level of their own development.
In the role of such are the basic needs of people who seriously affect the activity, actions, life of the individual in society. These needs are in a particular hierarchical position of their relationship with each other.
Their value is determined by the circumstances of life, as well as mutual arrangement in the hierarchy. For example, paramount desires require fulfillment in the first place, in relation to the others, which actively influence the personality after the fulfillment of paramount ones. Options for implementing first-level needs vary in diversity from low-level needs fulfillment methods. But a person feels the effect of some needs constantly, because the place of the realized need is taken by the new one, which is gaining a weighty role.
Human needs are at a key place and play a major role in the sphere of personal orientation as in a complex mental property, which includes a system of motivations and drives. It determines the life of a person, the selectivity of attitudes towards the world around.